Man-made desertification impacts climate change more than the burning of all fossil fuels. This includes contributions to greenhouse gasses, and overall warming.
The good news is that this is pretty easy to mend.
First, the problem: the deserts in America are getting bigger and hotter. Where there were once forests, there is now vast expanses of sand and rock with little to no vegetation. And it is the same story for nearly all deserts in the world.
And there are places that are currently not deserts, but are well on their way to becoming deserts.
There are many times when places around Missoula – or in Montana, are very desert-like. Especially Eastern Montana.
Is the Missoula area going through desertification? How long will it be until the few forests we have won’t grow without irrigation? Will the rivers dry up?
I want to share the simple solution, and, more importantly, I want to use and abuse these techniques in such a way to make my garden more resilient.
There are dozens of possible solutions. None of which use irrigation. The most popular techniques include swales, hugelkultur beds, mulch, and paddock shift grazing. While one small technique will usually help, the best results come from combining several.
Some of the key players working on a massive scale in this space are Geoff Lawton, Allan Savory, and Owen Hablutzel.
Geoff Lawton, Director of Permaculture Research Institute (PRI), has been focusing efforts in the Dead Sea Valley (Greening the Desert) to reverse the desertification of that area. I have produced numerous podcasts in discussion with him (also, he gave a TED talk!)
According to Allan Savory, farmer, scientist and founder of Holistic Management International (HMI), “It isn’t climate change but our management that is causing desertification … and desertification is a major component of climate change.” Savory suggests that livestock, when properly managed, are essential to land restoration – that raising cattle can be used to combat global climate change.
At the recent Permaculture Voices convergence in Temecula, California, Allan Savory expanded on the livestock solution. To paraphrase: Even if everyone in the world becomes vegan and no livestock whatsoever is used as a food source, our choices are: use ruminants in a holistic grazing manner to reverse desertification and live as vegans, or we can continue living in our current manner, and we will all die as vegans. It is that simple. Properly grazing ruminants is the only thing that will save us.
The science and experience behind Savory’s innovations, citing his work in Africa using elephants as the primary tool to heal the water cycle and reverse desertification, is presented by Savory himself in this short but informational clip:
Many others are continuing the work of reversing desertification, such as Owen Hablutzel, a Certified Holistic Educator with HMI as well as Director of Lawton’s USA branch of the Permaculture Research Institute. Hablutzel also trains farmers and ranchers on keylining – an approach to farm and ranch planning featuring a sub-soil plowing technique. Hablutzel describes keylining as a low-cost investment with a high soil fertility return across the landscape.
Look at this before and after picture.
The left picture is a farm in New Mexico. The picture on the right is the same land, only with very tall weeds growing a year after Hablutzel keylined there. He applied only one technique – keylining: no seeding, no irrigation. Pretty impressive.